InfraTracker tracks public investment in infrastructure to help governments shape programs and budgets that achieve the best transformative outcomes

InfraTracker tracks public investment in infrastructure to help governments shape programs and budgets that achieve the best transformative outcomes


The aim of InfraTracker is to help governments shape programs and budgets that achieve the best outcomes by allowing them to research and compare approaches to infrastructure spending and the outcomes being targeted by other governments.

The InfraTracker tool does this by presenting an estimate of the planned annual public investment in infrastructure for each of the 25 G20 member and guest economies, which has been validated through a process approved by G20 countries leading up to the endorsement of the InfraTracker by the G20 as a deliverable under the Indonesian G20 Presidency in 2022.

The estimate presented by InfraTracker illuminates how governments are responding to recent market conditions and how infrastructure investment is being used to tackle international and national challenges like climate change and social inequality.

The data presented in the tool are primarily derived from the latest publicly available central government budget documents (as of September 2022), then validated with the country where possible. The tool is not intended to be a statistical estimate of total spending. Rather, it is an aggregate of the latest budgets of central governments that provides an up-to-date view of how central governments are responding to recent market conditions and priorities. The data are for informational purposes only and may not be exhaustive.

InfraTracker encompasses three core components:

Central government investment

Estimates of budgeted annual public investment in infrastructure by central governments in all 25 G20 member and guest economies

Transfers Estimates of central government transfers to other levels of government for investment in infrastructure
Transformative outcomes How central government investments and capital transfers align to 13 transformative outcomes

Although InfraTracker includes estimates of central government transfers to other government levels for investments in infrastructure,[1] the GI Hub recognises that the decentralisation of functions and finance for infrastructure investments differs by country, and the capital transfers shown in the InfraTracker are underestimated as they exclude investments directly planned by public entities outside of central government. InfraTracker does not capture investment directly planned by subnational levels of government or other public entities (such as state-owned enterprises), given the significant challenges of collecting such data.

Data sources and approach

Sector Scope Economic infrastructure and social infrastructure
Reference period 2022
  • Operational expenditures
  • Investments from subnational levels of government, state-owned enterprises, or other public entities except those funded with central government transfers

Data for InfraTracker 2022 were collected from April to June 2022 and primarily sourced from the most recent, publicly available central government budgets. In some cases, the GI Hub has received data from countries directly, which have not been previously published by the countries and which are incorporated into the final estimates included in the InfraTracker. Planned investment amounts are captured for calendar year 2022.[2]

As infrastructure investments are captured differently in budget documents across the G20, a bespoke methodology was developed for each individual economy. These methodologies reflect the degree of data availability and granularity contained within budget documents and associated data tables, which varied considerably across the G20. For example, when it was not possible to identify details on capital expenditure, a bespoke approach was developed to estimate investment and remove operational expenditures. The approach in this case was to apply an assumption of 50% as a proxy to the figures for all economic infrastructure sectors, and 5% to all social infrastructure sectors. These proxy figures were sourced through secondary research on the capex ratio for infrastructure sectors in several countries. For some countries, the GI Hub has also applied judgement based on descriptions of budget line items in order to determine whether the amount was likely to be capex or opex, where this was not explicitly stated in budget documents or associated data tables.

Following data collection, a G20 member-led review and validation process was undertaken and was completed between April and August 2022. During this validation phase, the GI Hub worked with each country to identify unexpected trends and missing data, to verify assumptions, and to gather additional information to fill in any gaps. It should be noted that while every effort has been made, not all countries were able to fully validate all their information, given the considerable resources required to do so.

Sector classification

InfraTracker tracks investments in both economic and social infrastructure sectors. The sector and subsector classifications used are provided in the table below.



Infrastructure (general) Infrastructure (general)  
Communications Communications (unspecified) Data centres
  Fixed - e.g. broadband Digital / enterprise solutions 
  Wireless - e.g. 4G/5G, satellites   
Energy (general) Energy (general)   
Renewable generation Renewables (unspecified) Biofuels
  Solar  Hydro
  Wind  Other
Non-renewable generation Non-renewables (unspecified) Coal fired

Oil and gas fired

Carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS)

Energy storage, transmission, and distribution

Energy distribution (unspecified) 

Electricity transmission and distribution

Energy storage


  Gas transmission and distribution Energy efficiency
Transport Transport (unspecified) Roads

Zero Emissions Vehicles (ZEV) infrastructure


Active transport

Public transportation

  Air transport Other
  Ports Maritime/Inland water transport

Social (unspecified)

Healthcare and wellness infrastructure

Sports and recreation





Urban landscape / public spaces

Other public buildings and structures

  Tourism, arts, and culture  
Water Water (unspecified) Sewage treatment and collection

Dams and irrigation

Water treatment and distribution

Water efficiency solutions


Waste Water (unspecified) Recycling and waste minimisation solutions 

Municipal solid waste

Industrial and trade waste

Waste to energy



Disaster management infrastructure (e.g. flooding, earthquakes)



Commercial and industrial infrastructure

  Environment and nature-based solution (NBS)   

Transformative Outcomes analysis

InfraTracker also presents analyses that assess how infrastructure investment is being used to tackle international and national infrastructure challenges like climate change and social inequalities. Budgeted public investment in infrastructure was mapped to 13 transformative outcomes, which can be used to (1) visualise the transformative outcomes being targeted, and compare them proportionally, and (2) see which outcomes are being targeted in which sectors.

The transformative outcomes and methodological framework are presented in the table below.

Transformative outcome

Types of infrastructure announcements

Environmental sustainability Circularity

Infrastructure that supports the circular economy either in the way the infrastructure itself is built (circular infrastructure) or by enabling circularity in the economy (infrastructure for circularity).

Global Infrastructure Hub (2021). "The Role of Infrastructure in the Circular Economy".

  Environmental regeneration  Infrastructure that supports rehabilitation or restoration of environmental assets or biodiversity.
  Low-carbon transition 

Infrastructure that supports the transition to net zero emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Adapted from World Bank (2015). "Decarbonising Development".

  Pollution reduction  Infrastructure that supports reduction of air, water, noise, and land pollution (other than that covered under ‘low-carbon transition’).
Inclusivity Inclusive mobility Infrastructure that increases access to and safety of transport modes for underserved communities. 
  Digital connectivity 

Digital infrastructure as a channel to improve skills, to enhance quality of life, to drive education and to promote economic wellbeing across all elements of society.

Adapted from the Australian Digital Inclusion Index (2016).

  Affordability and access to services 

Infrastructure that improves affordability of tariffs and infrastructure services for low-income groups, thereby enabling universal access to basic services.

Global Infrastructure Hub (2019). "Inclusive Infrastructure".

Resilience Disaster and climate adaptation

Infrastructure that increases resilience, or the ability of individuals, institutions, businesses, and systems within the community to survive, adapt, and grow despite the chronic stresses or acute shocks?they experience. ‘Stresses’ and ‘shocks’ include impacts of climate change, natural disasters, and pandemics.

Adapted from Resilient Cities Network. 

  Social cohesion 

Infrastructure that supports community wellbeing, fights exclusion and marginalisation, creates a sense of belonging, promotes trust, and offers its members the opportunity of upward mobility – thereby enhancing the capacity of communities to respond to shocks and stresses.

Adapted from OECD (2012). "Perspectives on Global Development: Social Cohesion in a Shifting World".

Digital/InfraTech Digitalisation

Infrastructure that integrates material, machine, and digital and data technologies across its lifecycle to improve services (other than that included under ‘digital connectivity’).

Adapted from G20 Infrastructure Working Group Riyadh InfraTech Agenda, OECD Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives".


Infrastructure that increases the security of digital infrastructure (including hardware, networks, and data) to unauthorised access or malicious attacks - thereby ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information.

*Adapted from US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (2009) Security Tip (ST04-001).

  Digital connectivity

As defined above.

Research and development Disruptive innovation

Disruptive innovation involves new products or services that challenge established or incumbent products and services by addressing new market needs and by making the offerings more widely accessible and affordable.

*Adapted from Harvard Business Review (2015). "What is Disruptive Innovation?".

  Job creation and economic growth

Infrastructure that can support sustained and inclusive economic growth that can drive progress, create decent jobs for all, and improve living standards.

*Adapted from Sustainable Devleopment Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth.



Transfers for investment in infrastructure are captured where data are readily available within central government budgets. These data may also include transfers to subnational governments, government authorities, or state-owned enterprises.


For those countries in which calendar and fiscal years do not align, investment amounts for the period that captured the majority of 2022 were taken. For countries with fiscal years ending in June, investment figures for 2021–22 were taken.